In a spirited performance by the visitors Scott Sinclair crashed a shot off the post in the 23rd minute before the home captain Lars Stindl, who had opened the scoring in his side’s 2-0 win in Glasgow, volleyed in after 32 minutes to give the Bundesliga side the interval lead.
The Scottish champions finished the game looking for the win but had to be content with a point which takes them on to two, with two matches remaining against Barcelona and Manchester City. Pep Guardiola’s side are now five points ahead of bottom-placed Celtic.
Brendan Rodgers’ side survived several corners in the opening stages against a home side who took control without looking as purposeful as they had done a fortnight ago.
Celtic soon began to edge forward with growing confidence. However, when they lost possession high up the field in the 20th minute, Mönchengladbach broke with pace and Craig Gordon had to race from his goal to block a low drive by Tobias Strobl.
Three minutes later, the Bundesliga side enjoyed some luck when Sinclair’s curling shot from just inside the box beat Yann Sommer but rebounded off the inside of the post.
As Borussia struggled to hit top gear the anxiety within their fans grew but when Thorgan Hazard got beyond the stand-in left-back Emilio Izaguirre once more Celtic were made to pay, his cross finding the incoming Stindl who sent a right-footed volley past Gordon from 10 yards.
The Parkhead side started the second-half confidently enough but were cut open again in the 52nd minute by Hahn but this time Stindl did not connect with his shot properly and the ball trundled through to Gordon.
Opportunities presented themselves at both ends but when Dembélé was hauled to the ground inside the area by Korb as he skewed his shot wide of the target the referee pointed to the spot and the striker stepped up to earn what could be a crucial point.